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LUNG CANCER AND EARLY DIAGNOSIS – CLOSE TRACKING

What is it?
They are the cancers caused by prolonged exposure of the lung cells to various types of cancer-causing agents (cigarette, air pollution, radon gas). 75% of patients can be diagnosed very late when the disease is advanced.

Causes of lung cancer? SMOKING is the biggest cause (including passive smoking) (90%). In addition, air pollution, coal smoke, asbestos exposure, radon gas in the soil are the other causes. Some patients have a higher rate of familial history.

How is it detected? No complaints when the disease is most likely to be early. Those who have a family history, smokers, those who are exposed to air pollution, those who are under high stress, those with chronic nutrition and sleep disorder should be followed by an expert doctor from a young age. In risk groups, best follow-up should be done with a low dose lung tomography.

The first symptoms of lung cancer? It does not make much complaints in early periods. Later stage patients with complaints such as weight loss, chest pain, side and back pain, and blood spitting ought to be consulted by an expert.

Lung cancer staging? Clinical staging is performed with detailed examinations of the patient, detailed imaging and functional tests (lung film, tomography, MR and PET / CT advanced tomography, Bone scintigraphy, PFT – Respiratory function test, and other). The first three stages are early period (surgery is applied in the foreground). Stage 3B and 4 are advanced; they are usually treated with non-surgical chemotherapy, radiotherapy and / or immunotherapy. 3B lung cancer? This advanced stage is the stage of metastasis. With current treatments such as targeted therapies, immunotherapy, cancer vaccine and chemoradiotherapy, 5-year survival can be up to 15-18%.

Lung cancer vaccine? The Cuban vaccine (CIMAvax-EGF) provides “a survival advantage” in those with advanced NSCLC (Non-small cell Lung Cancer); 2-year survival rate is 38% and 5-year survival is 23%.

Smart drug? They are “targeted agents” (targeting cancer cells only). The main molecular changes that can be targeted are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, ALK translocation and ROS1 translocation.

Lung cancer surgery? In the early phase, the first 2 stages are surgery (VATS closed surgery); survival is around 70% for 5 years. In stage 3A, neoadjuvant (chemoradiotherapy) was performed before surgery. Close follow-up is very important.

The best way to prevent lung cancer is that SMOKING, E-SMOKING, WATER PIPE (hookah) should be terminated and EARLY DIAGNOSIS and CLOSE FOLLOWUP is very important.

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