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ESOPHAGEAL CANCER

What is esophageal cancer? Symptoms?

Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Incidence rates vary within different geographic locations.
Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach. Symptoms often include difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), hoarseness in voice and weight loss.

What are the risk factors and the causes for esophageal cancer?

Risk factors: Smoking tobacco, alcohol, very hot drinks, obesity, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), Barrett esophagus, bile reflux, lack of eating fruits and vegetables, radiation treatment.

Is the esophageal cancer genetically inherited?

Some people inherit DNA changes (mutations) from their parents that increase their risk for developing certain cancers. But esophageal cancer does not seem to run in families, and inherited gene mutations are not thought to be a major cause of this disease.

Stages for the Esopjhageal cancer?

Stage 0 (high grade dysplasia). Stage 1-2 (more limited, no distant organ spreading). Stage 3-4 (the disease is now spreaded to both close and distant organs).

What are the type of Esophageal cancer?

Types: Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma,
Other rare types: Some rare forms of esophageal cancer include small cell carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, melanoma and choriocarcinoma.

How to diagnose the Esophageal cancer?

– Physical examination, complaints
– Endoscopy (Esophagoscopy + Biopsy)
– Lung film
– CT
– MR imaging
– PET – CT (positron emission tomography)
– Ultrasound

Treatment options for the Esophageal cancer?

  • Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) techniques have reduced the need for surgery in early esophageal and gastric cancers,
  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Chemoradiotherapy
  • Laser
  • Electrocoagulation
  • Targeted therapy

Treatment options according to the stages of the Esophageal cancer?

Stage 0 (High-grade Dysplasia)

  • Surgery.
  • Endoscopic resection.

Stage I Esophageal Cancer

  • Chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery.
  • Surgery alone.

Stage II Esophageal Cancer

  • Chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery.
  • Surgery alone.

Stage III Esophageal Cancer

  • Chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery.
  • Chemotherapy followed by surgery.
  • Chemoradiation therapy alone.

Stage IV Esophageal Cancer

  • Chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery.
  • Or, mostly treatment options other than surgery.

What is the cure rate and survival rates for the Esophageal cancer?

The 5-year survival rate of people with cancer located only in the esophagus is 45%. The 5-year survival rate for those with disease that has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes is 24%. If it has spread to distant parts of the body, the survival rate is 5%.

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